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  iWiz(2004-01-04 22:39:10, Hit : 5454, Vote : 40

Optimizing servlets

Optimizing servlets

This section provides specific techniques for improving code for the servlet components of your web application. When looking to refactor a web application, you should also consider using design patterns. For more information on design patterns, see Chapter 2, "Design Patterns".

Caching static data in the init method

Where possible, you should try to cache static data rather than have your web application dynamically generate it each time a client makes a request. With servlets, you can cache the static data in the init method.

If the servlet is registered in the web.xml file and the load-on-startup element is set to 1, JRun invokes the init method when the server starts up. Otherwise, JRun invokes the init method the first time (and only the first time) a client requests the servlet.

The following example shows a servlet's init method that gets initialization parameters from the application's web.xml file and builds a footer that is later used in the servlet's doGet method.

You can invoke the init method with or without passing in a ServletConfig object. However, in this case, you invoke it with the ServletConfig so you can access the initialization parameters to build the footer.

public class InitOverride extends HttpServlet {
  String name;
  String email;
  String copyright;
  String footer;
  public void init (ServletConfig config) throws ServletException {
    name = config.getInitParameter("name");
    email = config.getInitParameter("email");
    copyright = config.getInitParameter("copyright");
    footer = ("<HR><FONT FACE="arial,helvetica,sans-serif" SIZE=-2>Copyright "
   + copyright + ". Brought to you by: <A HREF="mailto:" + email + "">" + name + "</A></FONT>");
  public void doGet ( HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) 
   throws ServletException, IOException {
    PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
    out.println( "</body></html>" );

The following lines show the servlet definition in the web.xml file, including the initialization parameters:

  <param-value>Nick Danger</param-value>
  <param-value>2000, 2001, 2002</param-value>

Caching static data in the ServletContext object

The ServletContext object stores objects as attributes. By caching objects, such as hashtables or other structures, you reduce the processing load of your application because all servlets in the application access the same context. Furthermore, if you store the object into the context in the servlet's init method, the method only runs once.

Use the init method of your servlet to build an object, store it in the ServletContext, and then access the object in the body of the servlet with a call to ServletContext.getAttribute. For database tables, you cannot store a ResultSet object as an attribute; you must refactor the data as an array or some other object.

In the servlet's init method, the following example iterates over a ResultSet and stores a Hashtable in the ServletContext using the context's setAttribute method. In the doGet method, the servlet accesses the Hashtable object through the ServletContext and uses a request parameter to get the appropriate row for output.

public void init () throws ServletException {
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(sqlstmt);
Hashtable h = new Hashtable();
while (rs.next()) {
getServletContext().setAttribute("statelist", h);
public void doGet (HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
  Hashtable h = (Hashtable) getServletContext(). getAttribute("statelist");
  String state = (String) h.get(request.getParameter("state"));
  out.println(request.getParameter("state") + " is an abbreviation for " + state);

When working with JSPs, use the application object, as that is the implicitly declared ServletContext object in a JSP.

Using the print method instead of println

When sending data to the PrintWriter object, use the print method instead of the println method, as shown in the following example:

PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
//out.println("This is the inefficient output");
out.print("This is the efficient output");

In Java, the print method is a more efficient output method than println. Internally, println takes the input and sends it to print. The difference between using println and print is that println inserts a newline character at the end of the string. However, this does not change the way the output is rendered by the client browser unless the client views the source of the HTML.

Using the HttpSession object for state management

For state management, use the HttpSession object instead of hidden fields, cookies and URL rewriting. When using the HttpSession API, JRun passes only the session ID between the client and server, not the session data itself. This is also easier to use than the other methods because the implementation details are hidden by the session object's API.

For JSP developers, use the implicit session object.

For more information on using the HttpSession object for state management, see "Working with sessions".

Flushing output

Periodically flush data so that the client sees something before the entire page finishes loading. While this does not improve the overall responsiveness of your application, it appears to your user that the page has been processed more quickly.

This technique works well if you have graphics-heavy or processing-intensive sections of a page that might be slow to download.

For example:

PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
out.flush(); //flush the header
out.flush(); //flush a large graphic in the body
out.flush(); //flush the footer

Use this technique for JSP pages with the implicit out object.

Increasing the response object's buffer

Servlets load content in the response object's buffer. When the buffer is full, the servlet creates a socket connection to the client and flushes the buffer. To reduce the number of sockets and network traffic, you can increase the size of the buffer.

The response buffer for a servlet defaults to 4kb. JRun flushes the buffer whenever the response size reaches this size. Set the buffer to a larger value to decrease the number of flushes necessary by using the setBufferSize method as shown in the following example:


To check the size of the buffer, use the getBufferSize method, as shown in the following example:

out.print("Buffer size is " + response.getBufferSize());

Increasing the PrintWriter object's buffer

If you increase the buffer size of the PrintWriter, then JRun flushes the response data less frequently. This results in fewer sockets being opened and fewer connections being made.

Use a ByteArrayOutputStream object to increase the buffer size of the PrintWriter, as shown in the following example:

ByteArrayOutputStream bos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(8192);
PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(bos, true);
out.print("<html><head><title>Using BytaArrayOutputStream</title></head>");
out.print( "</body></html>" );

Restricting calls to ServletContext.log

Calls to the ServletContext.log method can degrade performance. Limit calls to this method and use calls to System.out.println when possible.

* iWiz님에 의해서 게시물 이동되었습니다 (2010-02-03 16:57)

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